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Programmer’s note: Functions are first-class objects. A “ def ” statement executed inside a function definition defines a local function that can be returned or passed around. Free variables used in the nested function can access the local variables of the function containing the def. See section Naming and binding for details.

Programmer’s note:

See also

PEP 3107 PEP 484 PEP 526 PEP 563

A class definition defines a class object (see section The standard type hierarchy ):

classdef inheritance classname

A class definition is an executable statement. The inheritance list usually gives a list of base classes (see Metaclasses for more advanced uses), so each item in the list should evaluate to a class object which allows subclassing. Classes without an inheritance list inherit, by default, from the base class Stylesowner Women Lace Up Comfortable Casual Shoes Deals Cheap Online Cheap Sale 100% Guaranteed epYySKR2DW
; hence,

The class’s suite is then executed in a new execution frame (see Naming and binding ), using a newly created local namespace and the original global namespace. (Usually, the suite contains mostly function definitions.) When the class’s suite finishes execution, its execution frame is discarded but its local namespace is saved. [4] A class object is then created using the inheritance list for the base classes and the saved local namespace for the attribute dictionary. The class name is bound to this class object in the original local namespace.

The order in which attributes are defined in the class body is preserved in the new class’s __dict__ . Note that this is reliable only right after the class is created and only for classes that were defined using the definition syntax.

Class creation can be customized heavily using metaclasses .

Classes can also be decorated: just like when decorating functions,

The evaluation rules for the decorator expressions are the same as for function decorators. The result is then bound to the class name.

Programmer’s note: Variables defined in the class definition are class attributes; they are shared by instances. Instance attributes can be set in a method with = value . Both class and instance attributes are accessible through the notation “ ”, and an instance attribute hides a class attribute with the same name when accessed in this way. Class attributes can be used as defaults for instance attributes, but using mutable values there can lead to unexpected results. Outlet Locations Cheap Online kilobili Summer 2018 Leather Flats Sandals Women shoes Silver Ankle Strap Bling Black Gold Platform Sandals Female Footwear Wide Range Of For Sale N1IHy
can be used to create instance variables with different implementation details.

Main article: Rule of 72

To approximate how long it takes for money to double at a given interest rate, i.e., for accumulated compound interest to reach or exceed the initial deposit, divide 72 by the percentage interest rate. For example, compounding at an annual interest rate of 6 percent, it will take 72/6 = 12 years for the money to double.

The rule provides a good indication for interest rates up to 10%.

In the case of an interest rate of 18 percent, the rule of 72 predicts that money will double after 72/18 = 4 years.

In the case of an interest rate of 24 percent, the rule predicts that money will double after 72/24 = 3 years.

There are markets for investments (which include the money market, bond market, as well as retail financial institutions like banks) set interest rates . Each specific debt takes into account the following factors in determining its interest rate:

Opportunity cost encompasses any other use to which the money could be put, including lending to others, investing elsewhere, holding cash, or spending the funds.

Charging interest equal to inflation preserves the lender's purchasing power, but does not compensate for the time value of money in real terms . The lender may prefer to invest in another product rather than consume. The return they might obtain from competing investments is a factor in determining the interest rate they demand.

Since the lender is deferring consumption, they will wish , as a bare minimum, to recover enough to pay the increased cost of goods due to New Arrival British Style Men Leather Casual Oxfords Business Shoes Clearance Pay With Visa Amazing Price For Sale Supply Cheap Price 9l4Tax8W
. Because future inflation is unknown, there are three ways this might be achieved:

However interest rates are set by the market, and it happens frequently that they are insufficient to compensate for inflation: for example at times of high inflation during, e.g., the oil crisis; and currently (2011) when real yields on many inflation-linked government stocks are negative.

There is always the risk the borrower will become DORATASIA Summer Genuine Leather Hook Loop Wedges Shoes Discount Lowest Price Outlet Shopping Online Free Shipping Online nesYu6N
, abscond or otherwise default on the loan. The risk premium attempts to measure the integrity of the borrower, the risk of his enterprise succeeding and the security of any collateral pledged. For example, loans to developing countries have higher risk premiums than those to the US government due to the difference in creditworthiness. An operating line of credit to a business will have a higher rate than a mortgage loan .

The creditworthiness of businesses is measured by bond rating services and individual's credit scores by credit bureaus . The risks of an individual debt may have a large standard deviation of possibilities. The lender may want to cover his maximum risk, but lenders with portfolios of debt can lower the risk premium to cover just the most probable outcome.

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